Education in Britain starts from the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland, and 4 in Northern Ireland.
There are three age ranges: nursery for children under 5 years, infants from 5 to 7, and juniors from 7 to 11 years old. In nursery schools toddlers get the first knowledge of arithmetic, colours, letters and so on.
They start preparation for the first form. However, pre-school education isn’t compulsory, so many kids stay at home.
Compulsory education begins at the age of 5 when children go to primary school. This period lasts for 6 years. After being 11 or 12 students enter secondary. Pupils in England and Wales begin studying a range of subjects stipulated under the National Curriculum. Religious education is available in all schools, although parents have the right to withdraw their children from such classes.
There are government schools where boys and girls study together. Such schools have no tuition. But grammar schools, which give state secondary education of a very high standard, teach boys and girls separately.
Топик Education in Great Britain
Children study English, Mathematics, Science, History, Art, Geography, Music, a Foreign language and have lessons of Physical training. Some of the subjects are called «core» subjects. They are English, Mathematics and Science. At the age of 7,11 and 14 pupils take examinations in the core subjects.
Secondary education finishes at the age of 16 with the General Certificate of secondary education (GCSE) examination.
Those who stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for «A» (Advanced) Level Exams in two or three subjects which is necessary to enter one of British universities.
Others may leave school after GCSE and go to a college of further education.
The amount of higher establishments in Great Britain is impressive. Let’s have a look at the best of them. They are The University of Oxford, The University of Cambridge, London School of Economics, London Imperial College, London University College.
After three years of study a university graduate get the Degree of a Bachelor of Arts, Science or Engineering. Many students then continue their studies for a Master’s Degree and then a Doctor’s Degree (PhD).
Образование в Великобритании
- age ranges – возрастные диапазоны
- nursery school – ясли
- infant school – подготовительная школа
- toddlers – ребенок ясельного возраста
- pre-school education – дошкольное образование
- compulsory – обязательный
- primary school – начальная школа
- National Curriculum – национальная образовательная программа
- government schools – государственные школы
- grammar schools – гимназии
- core subjects – базовые предметы
- higher establishments – высшие учебные заведения
- General Certificate of secondary education – Общее свидетельство о среднем образовании
Топик по английскому "Образование в Великобритании" (Education in Great Britain)
Education in Britain is compulsory and free for all children.
Primary education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland, and 4 in Northern Ireland. It includes three age ranges: nursery for children under 5 years, infants from 5 to 7, and juniors from 7 to 11 years old.
In nursery schools babies don’t have real classes, they learn some elementary things such as numbers, colors and letters. Besides, they play, have lunch and sleep there.
Children usually start their school education in an infant school and move to a junior school at the age of 7.
Compulsory secondary education begins when children are 11 or 12 and lasts for 5 years: one form to each year. Secondary schools are generally much larger than primary ones.
Pupils in England and Wales begin studying a range of subjects stipulated under the National Curriculum.
Religious education is available in all schools, although parents have the right to withdraw their children from such classes.
About 5 per cent of schoolchildren attend fee-paying private or public schools. Most of these schools are boarding ones, where children live as well as study. The most famous British public schools are Eton, Harrow and Winchester.
The large majority of British schools teach both boys and girls together. But grammar schools, which give state secondary education of a very high standard, teach boys and girls separately.
The school year in England and Wales starts in September and ends in July. In Scotland it runs from August to June and in Northern Ireland from September to June and has three terms. At 7 and 11 years old, and then at 14 and 16 at secondary school, pupils take examinations in the core subjects (English, Mathematics and Science).
The main school examination, the General Certificate of secondary education (GCSE) examination is taken at the age of 16. If pupils are successful, they can make their choice: they may either go to a Further Education College or a Polytechnic or they may continue their education in the sixth form.
Those who stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for «A’ (Advanced) Level Exams in two or three subjects which is necessary to enter one of British universities. Universities usually select students basing on their A-level results and an interview. After three years of study a university graduate gets the Degree of a Bachelor of Arts, Science or Engineering.
Many students then continue their studies for a Master’s Degree and then a Doctor’s Degree (PhD).
Образование в Великобритании
Британское образование обязательно и бесплатно для всех детей.
Начальное образование начинается в 5 лет в Англии, Уэльсе и Шотландии, и в 4 года – в Северной Ирландии. Оно включает три возрастных диапазона: ясли для детей до 5 лет, начальная школа от 5 до 7 лет и младшая школа для детей 7-11 лет.
В детских садах у малышей еще нет настоящих уроков, их обучают лишь некоторым элементарным вещам: цифрам, цветам и буквам. Кроме того, они играют, обедают и спят.
Дети обычно начинают свое образование в начальной школе и далее в младшей школе в возрасте 7 лет.
Обязательное среднее образование начинается в возрасте 11 или 12 лет и продолжается в течение 5 лет: по одному классу на каждый год. Средние школы, как правило, намного больше начальных.
Ученики в Англии и Уэльсе приступают к изучению комплекса предметов, подразумеваемых Национальной программой.
Религиозное образование также присутствует во всех школах, хотя родители имеют право отказаться от этих занятий.
Около 5% школьников посещают платные частные школы. Большая часть таких школ является интернатами, то есть дети в них и живут, и обучаются. Самыми знаменитыми британскими частными школами считаются Итон, Хэрроу и Винчестер.
Большинство британских школ обучает мальчиков и девочек вместе. Однако «грамматические» школы, которые дают государственное среднее образование на очень высоком уровне, занимаются с мальчиками и девочками отдельно.
Учебный год в Англии и Уэльсе начинается в сентябре и заканчивается в июле. В Шотландии он длится с августа по июнь, а в Северной Ирландии – с сентября по июнь и состоит из трех семестров. В возрасте 7 и 11 лет, а потом 14 и 16 лет в средних школах дети сдают экзамены по основным предметам (английский, математика и естествознание).
Главный школьный экзамен на сертификат о среднем образовании (GCSE) проводится в возрасте 16 лет.
Если ученики сдают его успешно, у них есть выбор: они могут либо поступить в Колледж дополнительного образования или в политехническую школу, либо продолжить свое образование в шестом классе.
Те, кто остается в школе после GCSE, учатся еще 2 года для того, чтобы сдать экзамены продвинутого уровня «А» по двум-трем предметам, что является необходимым условием для поступления в британский университет.
Университеты обычно отбирают студентов по результатам «А» экзаменов и собеседования. Через 3 года обучения выпускник университета получает Степень бакалавра гуманитарных, естественных или технических наук. Многие студенты далее продолжают обучение для получения Степени магистра и после Степени доктора.
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Education in Great Britain — Blog In2English
There are about 40,000 schools in Britain. Education in Great Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5 and 16.
There are many children who attend a nursery school from the age of 3, but it is not compulsory. In nursery schools they learn some elementary things such as numbers, colours, and letters.
Apart from that, babies play, have lunch and sleep there. Whatever they do, there is always someone keeping an eye on them.
Compulsory education begins at the age of 5 when children go to primary school. Primary education lasts for 6 years. It is divided into two periods: infant schools (pupils from 5 to 7 years old) and junior schools (pupils from 7 to 11 years old). In infant schools children don’t have real classes.
They mostly play and learn through playing. It is the time when children just get acquainted with the classroom, the blackboard, desks and the teacher. But when pupils are 7, real studying begins. They don’t already play so much as they did it in infant school.
Now they have real classes, when they sit at desks, read, write and answer the teacher’s questions.
Compulsory secondary education begins when children are 11 or 12 and lasts for 5 years. Secondary school is traditionally divided into 5 forms: a form to each year.
Children study English, Mathematics, Science, History, Art, Geography, Music, a foreign language and have lessons of Physical training. Religious education is also provided. English, Mathematics and Science are called “core” subjects.
At the age of 7, 11 and 16 pupils take examinations in the core subjects.
There are 3 types of state secondary schools in Great Britain.
1) comprehensive schools, which take pupils of all abilities without exams. In such schools pupils are often put into certain sets or groups, which are formed according to their abilities for technical or humanitarian subjects. Almost all senior pupils (around 90 per cent) go there;
2) grammar schools
Education in Britain — English for everyone
Education in Britain
Education in Britain
In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old.
In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic.
In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Then children go to the Secondary School.
When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects in order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G. C. S. E.
(General Certificate of Secondary Education) or «0 level» (Ordinary level). After that students can either leave school and start working or continue their studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college.
Some parents choose private schools for their children.
They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities.
In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor’s degree and the Master’s degree.
1. When does compulsory school begin?
2. How long does a child stay in compulsory school?
3. What subjects do children learn in Primary School?
What kind of exam do students have to take when they are 16?
5. Do students have to leave school at the age of 16 or to continue their studies?
6. How do private schools differ from the regular ones?
How many universities are there in England?
8. What is the Open University?
9. What kinds of degrees do universities award?
Образование в Британии
В Англии и Уэльсе обязательное обучение в школе начинается с пяти лет, но до этого возраста дети могут ходить в детский сад, также называемый игровой школой. Обучение в школе обязательно до достижения детьми возраста 16 лет.
В первичной школе и начальной школе дети учатся читать и писать, а также основам арифметики. В старших классах первичной школы (или в средней школе) дети учат географию, историю, религию и, в некоторых школах, иностранный язык. После этого дети переходят в среднюю школу.
Когда ученики достигают шестнадцатилетнего возраста,
они могут сдавать экзамены по различным предметам для получения квалификации. Квалификация может быть как образца О.С.С.О. (Основное Свидетельство о среднем образовании), так и обыкновенного уровня.
После этого учащиеся могут покинуть школу и устроиться на работу, или продолжить образование в той же школе, что и перед этим. Если они продолжат, то, когда им исполнится 18 лет, они должны будут сдавать следующие экзамены, которые необходимы для поступления в университет или колледж.
Некоторые родители выбирают для своих детей частные школы. Они очень дорогие, но считается, что образование в них дается на более высоком уровне и имеются предпосылки для получения хорошей работы.
В Англии 47 университетов, включая Открытый университет, обучение в котором производится по телевидению и радио, около 400 колледжей и высших учебных заведений. Старейшие университеты Англии — Оксфорд и Кембридж. Главным образом, в университетах присваиваются два типа степеней: степени бакалавра и магистра.
Источник: 100 тем английского языка. Авторы Каверина В. Бойко В. Жидких Н.
Education in Great Britain
England schooling is compulsory for children of 5 to 16 years of age. Any child may attend a school without paying fees. Over 90% of children of compulsory school age go to state schools. The most important changes in Britain’s educational system were introduced under the Education Reform Act 1988.
It led to the compulsory National Curriculum for pupils aged 5 to 16 in state schools. The Act also aims to give parents a wider choice of schools for their children. Local educational authorities finance most school education at local level. They also employ teachers.
Every state school in England and Wales has a governing body, responsible for the school’s main policies. Parallel reforms are introduced in both Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Full-time education is compulsory up to the middle teenage years. There are three stages in education.
The first stage is primary education; the second is secondary education; the third is further education at university or college.
Before going to a primary school children receive nursery education (some children attend pre-school play-groups). It’s the first age of education. Around half of 3—4 years old in Britain receive nursery education.
Children of nursery age need care as well as education. Social, emotional and physical needs must be taken into consideration.
Compulsory primary education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland and at 4 in Northern Ireland. Children start their education in an infant school and move to a junior school at 7 years old.
Primary schools vary in size and location. Pupils study different subjects (English, mathematics, science, history, geography, music, art, physical education). Over 80% of all primary schools are mixed.
In Britain most children of compulsory secondary school age (11—16) receive free education financed from public funds. The large majority of schools are mixed.
The school year in England and Wales begins in September and continues into July. In Scotland it is from August to June. In Northern Ireland — from September to June. At this level children start to learn a modern foreign language. The course of study at secondary school may lead to General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications.
At 16 years old children take different examinations and have quite a lot of coursework, only after which they’re awarded GCSE.
Those who stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for A (Advanced) level exams in two or three subjects.
A small proportion of children (about 8%) attend private, or independent schools, which are not financed by the state.
To understand this phenomenon a little history is needed.
The British government paid little attention to education until the end of the 19th century. Schools had existed in Britain long before the government took an interest in education. A small group of schools admitted only the sons of the upper and upper middle classes.
At these public schools much more attention was paid to «character-building» and the development of «team spirit» rather than to academic achievements. These were «boarding- schools» (as the pupils lived in them). The pupils wore distinctive clothes and the schools had their own traditions.
The aim of those schools was to prepare young men to take up positions in the higher ranks of army, in business, civil service and politics.
A typical public school is for boys from 13. It admits fee-paying pupils. Such school is a boarding one. Each school is divided into houses with its housemaster. Public school place great emphasis on team sports. These schools are not at all luxurious or comfortable. A typical example of such a school is Eton.
British education has many different faces but one goal. Its aim is to realize the potential of all for the good of the individual and society as a whole.
The School Year
The school year is usually divided into three terms.
Autumn term lasts from September (or August) till Christmas holiday, which is about 2 weeks. Then spring term — till Easter holiday (also 2 weeks), and summer term, which lasts till June (or July). Summer holiday is about 6 weeks.
In addition all schools have a half-term, which lasts a few days or a week in the middle of each term.
Nearly all schools work five days a week. They are closed on Saturdays and Sundays. The school day starts at 9 o’clock and finishes between 3 and 4p.m. The lunch break usually lasts an hour-and-a-quarter. Most
pupils have lunch provided by the school. The lunch is paid by parents. Other children either go home for lunch or have a snack at school.
At 15—16 years old school children take public exams. They are not usually set up by the government (rather by independent examining boards). Each school or Local Education Authority decides which exams their pupils are to take. The boards publish syllabus for each subject.
There is no single school-leaving exam or school-leaving certificate. Usually a vast range of subjects is offered for school children. Nearly all pupils do exam in English, Maths and Science. Most do exams in technology and in a foreign language. Some pupils take exams in 3—4 additional subjects.
Usually exams have nothing to do with school years. Once the examining boards decided to include certain popular television programmes on their literature syllabus.
I. Answer the questions.
1. What is the goal of education in Britain?
2. What types of school do you know in Britain?
3. What school do children at 6 years attend?
4. What exams do children have to take at 16 years old?
What subjects do pupils learn at secondary school?
6. Is there any difference between state and independent schools?
7. What is the aim of private schools?
8. Can you give an example of a private school?
Is schooling compulsory for pupils of 17 years old?
10. When does the academic year begin?
II. True or false?
1. Schooling is compulsory for children of 5 to 16 years of age.
2. Quite a large number of children attend public schools.
The first stage of education is secondary education.
4. Children in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland go to school at the same age.
5. Only a small part of schools are mixed.
At public schools much attention is paid to character-building.
7. After finishing secondary school children are awarded GCSE.
III. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.
1. private education —
2. compulsory education —
3. mixed schools —
4. boarding schools —
5. GCSE —
6. academic year —
7. nursery education —
II. 1. T; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. F; 6. T; 7. T.
Education in Great Britain (continued)
At the age of 16 pupils can leave school. But quite a lot of them want to continue their education. Only 1/3 of all leave school at 16 and look for a job. (The general level of unemployed is high today.
Some of them find job immediately and many take part in training schemes (which means job combined with part-time college courses).
In England and Wales those who stay at school study just three subjects in preparation for taking A-level exams (Advanced Level).
These academic exams are set by the same examining boards that set GCSE exams.
They’re taken by pupils at the age of 18 years old, who wish to continue their education.
Universities usually select students on the basis of A-level results and an interview (students who wish to enter Oxford and Cambridge have to take certain exams). Those who have better A-level results are usually accepted.
Higher education has become more available in the second half of the 20th century. In 1960 there were less than 25 universities in Britain. By 1980 there were already more than 40, and by 1995 there were over a hundred institutions with university status.
Universities take the better students, that’s why nearly all students complete their studies.
The normal course of study lasts 3—4 years. Students are not supposed to take a job during the term. Unless their parents are rich, they receive a state grant, which covers most of their expenses, including the cost of accommodation. Quite a lot of students live on campus (or in college) or in rooms nearby.
However, nowadays the government reduces the amount of the students and encourages a system of top-up loans. That’s why quite a lot of students can’t afford to live in college and many more of them are forced to do a part-time job, but this reduces the traditionally high quality of British university education.
And, in addition, the number of students from low-income families has been greatly reduced.
There are no great distinctions between different types of universities in Britain. But still there are some categories of them.
First of all, Oxbridge. Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the medieval period.
These Universities consist of semi-independent colleges, each of them having its own staff («Fellows»).
The «Fellows» teach the college students either one-to one or in very small groups. This system is unique in the world and known as tutorials in Oxford and supervisions in Cambridge.
Then, Scotish universities.
By 1600 Scot-land had 4 universities — Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and St. Andrews. St. Andrews resembles Oxbridge very much. In the other three most of the students live at home or find their rooms in town. The process of study at these universities is very close to the continental one. There is less specialization than at Oxbridge.
During the 19th century various institutions of higher education (usually technical ones) were founded in the industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds.
Their buildings were of local brick, so they got the name «redbrick» universities. They contrasted chiefly with Oxford and Cambridge. At first, they prepared students for London University degrees, but later they were given the right to award their own degrees. They became universities themselves. Now they accept students from all over the country. These universities are financed by local authority.
One of the developments in education in Britain is certainly the Open University. It was founded in 1971. Some people don’t have an opportunity to study full-time, and this university allows them to study for degree.
The university’s courses are taught through television, radio and course books. Its students work individually and with tutors, to whom they send their papers. The students discuss their work at meetings or through correspondence.
In summer they attend short courses.
I. Answer the questions.
1. Do pupils at 16 prefer to continue their education or to find job?
2. How many subjects are studied by pupils in preparation for taking A-level exams?
When do pupils take their A-level exams?
4. How do universities select students?
5. Why do all students usually complete their studies?
Why has the high quality of British university education been reduced recently?
7. When was the Open University founded?
II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.
1. training schemes —
2. on campus —
3. a part-time job —
4. low-income families —
5. staff —
6. «redbrick» universities —
III. Fill in the gaps.
1. At the age of . . . pupils can leave school.
2. Only … of all pupils leave school and look for a job.
3. Those who stay at school study . . . subjects.
4. A-level exams are taken at . . . years old.
5. Universities select students on the basis of exams.
By 1986 there were more than . . . universities in Britain.
7. The course of study at universities lasts . . . years.
8. The government encourages a system of . . . loans.
9. Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the . . . period.
The unique system of education in Britain is known as … at Oxford and … at Cambridge.
11. One of the developments in education in Britain is ….
III. 1.16; 2. 1/3; 3. three; 4. 18; 5. A-level results and interview; 6. 40; 7. 3—4 years; 8. “top-up”; 9. Medieval; 10. “tutorials”; “supervisions”; 11. the Open University.
(Великобритания: Тексты для устных ответов и письменных работ на английском языке. Авт.-сост. И. Ю. Баканова)
Higher Education in Great Britain
|It is generally known that British education is one of the best in the world. The United Kingdom has ancient educational traditions: the famous Oxford University worked already in the 11th century. Nowadays, the universities of Cambridge, London, Edinburgh, etc. are very prestigious and take the highest positions in various international rankings.||Общеизвестно, что британское образование является одним из лучших в мире. Соединённое Королевство имеет древние образовательные традиции: знаменитый Оксфордский университет работал уже в XI веке. В наши дни университеты Кембриджа, Лондона, Эдинбурга и др. очень престижны и занимают высочайшие позиции в различных международных рейтингах.|
|Of course, the UK educational system is strong not only because of universities: a student learns to be responsible and hardworking since primary and secondary school. Final exams require serious preparation. Then, students can enter a college to get a practical profession or stay at school for another two years and study profile subjects in depth. This stage called Advanced Level allows entering the university.||Конечно, образовательная система Соединённого Королевства сильна не только благодаря университетам: студент учится быть ответственным и трудолюбивым с начальной и средней школы. Итоговые экзамены требуют серьёзной подготовки. Затем учащийся может поступить в колледж, чтобы получить практическую профессию, или остаться в школе ещё на два года и углубленно изучать профильные предметы. Этот этап, называемый Advanced Level, позволяет поступить в университет.|
|Higher education includes several levels. It is necessary to study for three or four years (it depends on the specialty) to get Bachelor’s Degree. Two additional years finish with Master’s Degree of research or professional type. If a person wants to do science, he or she continues research (publishes articles, participates in conferences, and writes a thesis) to become a Ph.D.||Высшее образование включает несколько уровней. Необходимо учиться три или четыре года (это зависит от специальности), чтобы получить степень бакалавра. Два дополнительных года завершаются степенью магистра исследовательского либо профессионального типа. Если человек хочет заниматься наукой, он или она продолжает исследование (публикует статьи, участвует в конференциях и пишет диссертацию), для того чтобы стать доктором наук.|
|British university students enjoy a great variety of kinds of work (theoretical and practical, individual and team), faculties, and educational programs. For example, Oxford University offers numerous classical and new directions of training: from history, philosophy, and zoology to experimental psychology, management, studies of Africa, etc. Qualified professors, deep knowledge with strict standards, and the possibility to vary the academic plan in accordance with personal interests attract many foreign students to Great Britain.||Студенты британских университетов пользуются огромным разнообразием видов работы (теоретической и практической, индивидуальной и командной), факультетов и образовательных программ. Например, Оксфордский университет предлагает многочисленные классические и новые направления подготовки: от истории, философии, зоологии до экспериментальной психологии, менеджмента, изучения Африки и т.д. Квалифицированные профессора, глубокие знания со строгими стандартами и возможность варьировать учебный план в соответствии с личными интересами привлекают в Великобританию многих иностранных студентов.|
Education in Great Britain — Образование в Великобритании
Education in Great Britain is provided by the Local Education Authority (LEA) in each county. Until recently, each LEA was free to decide how to organize education in its own area. However, in 1988 the «National Curriculum» was introduced. It means that there is greater government control over what is taught in schools now.
Children under five don’t have to go to school, but there is some free nursery-school education before that age. The places are usually given to families in special circumstances, for example families with one parent only. That’s why in many areas parents have formed play groups where children under five years can go for a morning or afternoon a couple of times a week.
At the age of five children go to primary schools, first to infant schools for pupils aged from 5 to 7 and then to junior, schools for pupils from 8 to 11 years.
Some parents choose to pay for private education though there are free state schools. Private schools are called by different names compared to state schools. The preparatory schools are for pupils aged up to 13, and the public schools are for 13 to 18 year-olds. These schools are very expensive and they are attended only by about 5 per cent of the schoolchildren.
Free secondary education has been available to all children in Britain since 1944. Children must go to school until the age of 16, and pupils may stay on for one or two years more if they wish.
Over 80 per cent of schoolchildren go to comprehensive schools at the age of 11. These schools are not selective — you don’t have to pass an exam to go there. But before 1965 all children took an exam at the age of 11 called the «11+». The top 20 per cent were chosen to go to the academic grammar schools.
Those who failed the «11+» went to secondary modern schools. A lot of people thought that this system of selection at the age of 11 was unfair on many children. So comprehensive schools were introduced to offer education for pupils of all abilities.
There are a few LEAs who still keep the old system, but most LEAs have now changed over completely to nonselective education in comprehensive schools.
Comprehensive schools want to develop the talents of each individual child. So they offer a wide choice of subjects, from art and craft, woodwork and domestic science to the sciences, modern languages, computer studies, etc. All these subjects are enjoyed by both girls and boys. All pupils move to the next class automatically at the end of the year.
At the age of 14 or 15 pupils begin to choose their exam subjects. In 1988 a new public examination — the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) — was introduced for 16 year- olds. This examination assesses pupils on the work they do in the 4th and 5th year at secondary school, For University entrance pupils have to take «А» Level (Advanced Level) GCE exam.
Many people decide to leave school at the age of 16 and go to a Further Education (FE) College for practical vocational training, for example in engineering, typing, cooking or hairdressing.
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В английском языке (Причастие I) причастие настоящего времени действительного залога (The Present Participle Active / Participle I Active) образуется при помощи прибавления к основе глагола суффикса -ing: to work (работать) — working (работающий), to write (писать) — writing (пишущий), to stand (стоять) — standing (стоящий), to sit (сидеть) — sitting (сидящий).
School Education in Great Britain – Школьное образование в Великобритании
In Great Britain children begin to go to school at the age of five. В Великобритании дети начинают ходить в школу в возрасте до пяти лет.
First they study at infant schools. Сначала они учатся в дошкольных учреждениях.
In these schools they learn to draw with coloured pencils and paints. В этих школах они учатся рисовать цветными карандашами и красками.
They also make figures out of plasticine and work with paper and glue. Они также делают фигуры из пластилина и работают с бумагой и клеем.
They play much because they are very young. Они много играют, потому что они очень малы.
Later they begin to learn letters and read, write and count.Потом они начинают учить буквы и читать, писать и считать.
At the age of seven English schoolchildren go to junior schools. В возрасте семи лет английские школьники идут в начальную школу.
They do many subjects: English and Maths, History and Music, Natural History and Drawing, Handicrafts, French and Latin.Они изучают много предметов: английский и математика, история и музыка, естествознание и рисование, рукоделие, французский и латинский.
They do not go to school as early as we do, but they stay there longer. Они не ходят в школу так рано, как мы, но остаются там дольше.
The first lesson usually starts at 9 o’clock. Первый урок, как правило, начинается в 9 часов.
There are 3 lessons with short breaks of 10 minutes between them and then an hour break for lunch. Есть 3 урока с короткими перерывами по 10 минут между ними, а затем перерыв на обед.
After lunch they have two more lessons which are over by half past three.После обеда у них еще два урока, которые заканчиваются в половине четвертого.
If you have a look at an English pupil’s school record, you will see that the marks in it differ from the marks we have. Если вы посмотрите на успеваемость английских учеников, вы увидите, что оценки отличаются от наших.
Our schoolchildren get marks from 1 to 5 (12). Наши школьники получают оценки от 1 до 5 (12).
At English school there are marks from 1 up to 10 and at some schools from 1 up to 100.В английской школе оценки от 1 до 10, и в некоторых школах от 1 до 100.
Junior school ends at the age of 11 when pupils take the Eleven Plus examination and then secondary school begins. Начальная школа заканчивается в возрасте 11 лет, когда ученики сдают отборочные экзамены “11+”, а затем начинается средняя школа .
At the age of 16 schoolchildren take their exams. В возрасте 16 лет школьники сдают выпускные экзамены.
Only 45 per cent continue with fulltime education after 16. Только 45 процентов продолжают образование после 16.
The rest go to work or join employment training schemes.Остальные идут работать или присоединяются к системе профессиональной подготовки.